What Causes Obesity? Why are you Obese?

What Causes Obesity Why are you Obese

What is the reason for Obesity? 

When an individual eats more calories than they need for the energy they use, obesity results. Weight gain or obesity is the result of several different factors.

About 90 percent of people who lose weight by dieting, regardless of their form of weight loss, gain every pound back.
Some proof indicates that each person has an inherited weight. This range differs from a certain fixed point by just around 10 percent, either up or down. A man whose 'genetically-determined' weight is 200 pounds, for example, will appear to swing from 180 to 220 pounds. It would not be possible that he would gain or lose anything more than this.

Genetic factors may play some part in 70 - 80% of obesity cases.

Here we will discuss the important factors that contribute to obesity.

Role of Appetite in Obesity

Processes that exist both in the brain and in the gastrointestinal tract determine appetite. Areas in the hypothalamus and pituitary glands (in the brain) regulate eating habits. Several molecules in the body are responsible for increasing or decreasing your appetite. In some cases, the following factors can produce imbalances:

1) Insulin 

What is insulin

Insulin is a hormone that helps turn blood sugar ( glucose) into energy. Carbohydrates from our diet break down into various forms of sugar molecules (including glucose) during digestion. Proteins in our diet break down into smaller molecules known as amino acids.

How insulin causes Obesity?

Blood glucose levels increase immediately after eating. This releases insulin, which pours into the bloodstream. Glucose and amino acids are driven into cells and muscles by insulin. The nutrients that will be burned for energy or processed for potential use are determined by insulin and other hormones. Both obesity and diabetes are associated with the inability to use insulin efficiently (insulin resistance).

2) Leptin 

What are leptins

Fat cells release a hormone leptin. Several scientists think that cells in the stomach can also produce this hormone. The role of leptin in insulin resistance and fat accumulation in the body seems to play an important role, but its role in obesity is unclear.

How leptin causes obesity?

The most likely scenario is that, as the cells store more fat, leptin levels increase. This rise in the levels of leptin reduces appetite. Falling leptin levels make you feel hungry. However, the brain could be tricked into thinking that it still starves because there is no leptin to suppress hunger in people who have genetically lower levels of leptin. This can lead to an increase in weight.

3) Resistin causes Obesity

Resistin is a hormone that fat cells produce. It renders the body resistant to the action of insulin. Some experts think that it may help to understand the role of obesity in type 2 diabetes.

4) Intestinal Chemicals causes Obesity

Ghrelin is a chemical produced in the stomach. In triggering the urge to eat, it seems to be important. 

Peptide YY3–36 (PYY) is a substance that is secreted after a meal in the intestines. The PYY amount is proportionate to the number of calories consumed by a human. PYY informs the brain that you are feeling full. 

Ghrelin and PYY deficiencies can lead to some cases of obesity. Researchers are hoping that therapies for obesity may be achievable by blocking ghrelin or infusing PYY.

5) Other Chemicals that cause Obesity

Because of their role in appetite stimulation and weight gain, many brain chemicals are being studied. Neuropeptide Y, melanocortins, agouti-related protein, and hormone stimulating melanocytes are among these. In reducing appetite and controlling energy usage, pain-relieving chemicals endorphins are important. To regulate meal size, cholecystokinin, a hormone released in the upper intestine that stimulates digestive juices, may be effective.

Role of Genetic Factors in Obesity

In individuals with family histories of the issue, genetics may directly contribute to serious obesity. Genetic variables can also make individuals more likely to be overweight, such as weak metabolisms. Specific and rare cases of extreme obesity are associated with at least seven genetic mutations. Below, some are outlined.

  • HOB1 (human obesity 1) is a gene that is linked to a high BMI in women.
  • Leptin gene variants have been linked to leptin deficiencies and obesity.
  • Melanocortin-4 receptor is a gene that helps turn off the urge to eat. It may not work properly in those with a family history of obesity.
  • Researchers have also reported a mutation in a protein gene called proopiomelanocortin, resulting in obesity, red hair, and stress hormone deficiency syndrome.
  • Hunger is intensified by a protein named agouti-associated protein. Approximately 5% of highly obese individuals have mutations that overreact to the protein associated with agouti.
  • Hunger is intensified by a protein named agouti-related protein. Approximately 5% of highly obese individuals have mutations that overreact to the protein associated with agouti.
Genetics determines the number of fat cells an individual has. Some individuals are born with more cells. It should be noted that a person can still regulate their diet even when genetic factors are present.

The Thrifty Gene. 

Some scientists suggest that fluctuations in hormone levels are controlled by the presence of a so-called 'thrifty' gene to accommodate seasonal changes. It functions theoretically in the following way:

  • In some populations, during seasons when food supplies have historically been limited, hormones are released. This leads to resistance to insulin and increased accumulation of fat.
  • In seasons where food is readily available, the mechanism is reversed.
  • The gene no longer serves a useful purpose because modern industrialization has made high carbohydrates and fatty foods available all year long. There is no use of fat, originally processed for drought conditions.

This hypothesis could clarify why there are such high rates of type 2 diabetes and obesity among the formerly nomadic Native American tribes who now have Western dietary habits. In the past, they could have been shielded from obesity and type 2 diabetes by the conventional low-fat, high-fiber diets tribe members ate. 

The diet of these tribes today contains more Western foods, which are higher in fat. Also, these foods are readily available all year round, and many tribe members are sedentary. The result is a very high incidence of Type 2 diabetes and obesity. 

While genetic abnormalities can make it harder or easier to lose weight, over the past two decades, the incidence of obesity has risen significantly, and during that short period of time, genes can not change. Our capacity to use the food we consume has developed so that, during periods of drought, our body can retain energy and store fat. Most cases of obesity now occur in individuals living in developed nations with normal body function, where there is more than enough food.

Medical or Physical Causes of Obesity

Overweight may lead to a variety of medical conditions, but they are rarely a primary cause of obesity.

  • Weight gain is often associated with hypothyroidism. However, patients with an underactive thyroid normally display just a modest five to 10-pound rise in weight.
  • Obesity is caused by very rare genetic disorders, including Froehlich syndrome in youth, Laurence-Moon-Biedl syndrome, and Prader-Willi syndrome.
  • Hypothalamic obesity can be caused by anomalies or hypothalamus gland damage.
  • A rare disorder triggered by elevated levels of steroid hormones is Cushing's disease. This results in obesity, a moon-shaped face, and muscle wasting.
  • Obesity is also linked to the polycystic ovarian syndrome, a hormonal disorder in women.

Medication effects on Obesity

Some prescription drugs, typically through increased appetite, lead to weight gain. Drugs of this type include the following:

  • Corticosteroids
  • Treatment of female hormones, including certain oral birth control pills (the effect is normally temporary) and certain progestin (such as Megestrol) used to treat cancer
  • Antidepressants and anti-psychotic drugs, including lithium and valproate
  • Insulin and insulin-stimulating medications used to treat diabetes frequently contribute to weight gain, a conflict of interest that is especially unfortunate for obese people with type 2 diabetes.

You should not stop taking any medications without your doctor's knowledge.

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